Seismic Test & Analysis Webinars

This is a work-in-progress…

I am creating a series of webinars with Matlab exercises for seismic testing.

Here are the slides.

Telcordia Technologies Generic Requirements GR-63-CORE:  Bellcore_GR_63_Core.ppt
This unit contains an alternative waveform for VERTEQII.

CEI.IEC 980, Recommended practices for seismic qualification of electrical equipment of the safety system for nuclear generating stations:  CEI/IEC 980: 1989

IEEE Std 693-2005, Recommended Practice for Seismic Design of Substations: IEEE_693_sine_beat.pptx

IEEE Standard for Seismic Qualification of Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating
Stations: IEEE_std_344.ppt

Matlab script: Vibrationdata Signal Analysis Package

* * *

See also:

Cummins Generator Seismic Shaker Test

Earthquake Conference

Seismic Shock

Webinar 47 – Shock Response Spectrum Synthesis, Special Topics

Seismic Peak Ground Acceleration

Some Earthquake Engineering Terminology

* * *

– Tom Irvine

Satellite Equipment Vibration Testing

stentor__1

Stentor Satellite

Equipment mounted in satellites must withstand acoustic-driven random vibration at liftoff and during the transonic and maximum dynamic pressure phases of flight.   The equipment must be designed and test accordingly.

The equipment is mounted on shaker tables for the random vibration testing, but this can be overly conservative with respect to the actual vibroacoustic environment.

Here is an interesting case study paper:

Comparison of Satellite Equipment Responses Induced by Acoustic and Random Vibration Tests, Bertrand Brevart, Alice Pradines, 2002. Comparison_Satellite_2002.pdf

Force-limiting is one method for mitigating this overtest problem.  See NASA-HDBK-7004

More later…

– Tom Irvine

Some Nonlinear Sine Sweep Vibration Test Data

Certain equipment must be designed and tested to withstand external vibration excitation.  This is common in the military, naval, aerospace and other industries.

The equipment is typically mounted on a shaker table and subjected to base excitation.  The input may be random vibration if the field environment is likewise.  In other cases, random vibration is used to verify the integrity of parts and workmanship separately from the maximum expected field environment.

The random vibration is typically specified as a power spectral density (PSD).  Note that the workmanship screen and field level can be enveloped by a single PSD. A goal is to verify that the equipment operates properly before, during and after the random vibration test.

A more thorough test is to perform a sine sweep test before and after the random vibration test.   A response accelerometer is mounted on the test article, in addition to the control accelerometer at the base input location.   The objective is to determine whether any natural frequencies have shifted, or any other changes have occurred, as a result of the random test.  Such changes could indicated loosened fasteners, crack formation or other defects.

A case history is given next.  The data was sent to me by a colleague.  I have requested further information on the equipment and will post a photo or diagram later if permission is granted.

sine_sweep_nonlinearity

Figure 1.

sine_sweep_fft
Figure 2.

A rocket engine assembly was subjected to a sine sweep test in conjunction with a random test.  A resonant response occurred when the excitation frequency was swept through 85 to 86 Hz as shown in Figure 1.  The equipment response would have had a similar frequency content to the input if it had been a well-behaved, linear, single-degree-of-freedom system.  The response Fourier transform for the corresponding duration did have a spectral peak at 85.45 Hz matching the sweeping input frequency as shown in Figure 2.

(Note that this is an approximation because the Fourier transform is taken over a short duration and represents an average, whereas the input frequency has instantaneous change.)

But the response also showed integer harmonics with the highest peak at 683.6 Hz, which was 8x the fundamental frequency.

Please let me know if you have observed similar effects or have other insights.  Hopefully, I can post more details later…

Sine Sweep Time History Data

Thank you,
Tom Irvine

* * *

My colleague Albert Turk sent me a reply, paraphrased as follows:

I suspect a component with a resonance at the input frequency that is excited to the point of metal-to-metal impact. I have seen data from repetitive impact machines (HASS) and also from gunfire (50 cps) that had these integer multiples.

If so, the sinusoidal excitation has turned the assembly into a repetitive impact machine near 85 Hz. It would be interesting to see if there is a sine input amplitude threshold below which this suddenly goes away.

And Steve Zeise wrote:

I have observed this phenomenon and tracked it down to loose joints introducing impacts into the system.

Note that joints can slip under shock & vibration loads.

“Loss of clearance” of “loss of sway space” may be appropriate, related terms to describe the problem shown in the data.  Further investigation is needed.

JPL Tunable Shock Beam

jpl_shock2

jpl_shock3

jpl_shock5

The NASA/JPL Environmental Test Laboratory (ETL) developed and built a tunable beam shock test bench based on a design from Sandia National Laboratory many years ago. ETL has been using this test system successfully since October 2008.

The excitation is provided by a projectile driven by gas pressure.

The beam is used to achieve shock response spectrum (SRS) specifications, typically consisting of a ramp and a plateau in log-log format. The intersection between these two lines is referred to as the “knee frequency.” The beam span can be varied to meet a given knee frequency. The high frequency shock response is controlled by damping material.

The tunable-beam system is calibrated with a center-of-gravity (CG) mass and footprint model of the test article. The mass simulator is mounted in the test axis with the appropriate accelerometers installed as they would be for the testing the test article. Then the system is tuned by performing test runs until the data plots meet the requirement.

Finally, the test article is mounted to the tuned beam for the actual test.

See also:  JPL Tunable Beam

– Tom Irvine

Nonstationary Vibration Enveloping Method Comparison

There is a need to derive a power spectral density (PSD) envelope for nonstationary acceleration time histories, including launch vehicle data, so that components can be designed and tested accordingly.

Three methods are considered in the following paper using an actual flight accelerometer record.

The first method divides the accelerometer data into segments which are idealized as “piecewise stationary” in terms of their respective PSDs. A maximum envelope is then drawn for the superposition of segment PSDs. This method initially requires no assumptions about the response characteristics of the test item, but vibration response spectra may used for peak clipping as shown in the example.

The following two methods apply the time history as a base input to a single-degree-of-freedom system with variable natural frequency and amplification factors. The response of each system is then calculated. Upper and lower estimates of the amplification factor can be used to cover uncertainty.

The first of this pair is the energy response spectrum (ERS), which gives energy/mass vs. natural frequency, as calculated from the relative response parameters.

The final method is the fatigue damage spectrum (FDS), which gives a Miners-type relative fatigue damage index vs. natural frequency based on the response and an assumed fatigue exponent, or upper and lower estimates of the exponent.

The enveloping for each of the response spectra methods is then justified using a comparison of candidate PSD spectra with the measured time history spectra. The PSD envelope can be optimized by choosing the one with the least overall level which still envelops the accelerometer data spectra, or which minimizes the response spectra error.

This paper presents the results of the three methods for an actual flight accelerometer record. Guidelines are given for the application of each method to nonstationary data. The method can be extended to other scenarios, including transportation vibration.

Paper:  enveloping_comparison.pdf

Slides:  Irvine_IEST_2016.pptx

The Matlab scripts for the enveloping methods are included in  Vibrationdata GUI package

* * *

See also:

Rainflow Cycle Counting

Energy Response Spectrum

Dirlik Rainflow Counting Method from Response PSD

Fatigue Damage Spectrum, Frequency Domain

Optimized PSD for Nonstationary Vibration Environments

– Tom Irvine

Optimized PSD Envelope for Multiple Accelerometer Time Histories

Prerequisite Reference Papers

David O. Smallwood, An Improved Recursive Formula for Calculating Shock Response Spectra, Shock and Vibration Bulletin, No. 51, May 1981.  DS_SRS1.pdf

Rainflow Counting Tutorial

Fatigue Damage Spectrum, Time Domain

Fatigue Damage Spectrum

Dirlik Method for PSDs

Optimized PSD FDS Nonstationary 

* * *

Main Paper

Consider a component mounted on a structure where the base input is measured by an adjacent accelerometer on the structure. An envelope power spectral density (PSD) is needed so that component design and test levels can be derived, with the appropriate added statistical uncertainty margin.

Assume that the base input has been measured over a series of accelerometer time histories. This could be the case for an automobile driven at different speeds over different road conditions, for example.

The envelope PSD can be derived using fatigue damage spectra as shown in:  FDS_PSD_multiple.pdf

The C++ programs are:

fds_multiple.cpp
fds_multiple.exe
fds_multiple_envelope.cpp
fds_multiple_envelope.exe

* * *

Here is an alternate program that allows for repetition for a given time history file.  This is useful, for example, if a short time duration was measured to represent a longer service duration.

fds_multiple_alt.cpp
fds_multiple_alt.exe

Now assume that there are three measured acceleration time histories where the repetition number is 10, 50 and 100, respectively.

The input file format would be:

time_history_1.txt 10
time_history_2.txt 50
time_history_3.txt 100

Substitute your own file names and multipliers accordingly.

* * *

– Tom Irvine

Relative Displacement from Two Accelerometer Time Histories

Assume that input and response acceleration PSDs have been measured.  The corresponding displacement PSDs can be readily calculated.

But the relative displacement cannot be calculated accurately because the phase angles are discarded in the PSD calculation.

The best method is to perform the relative displacement calculation in the time domain. The relative displacement PSD can then be calculated if desired.

A function for calculating the relative displacement from two accelerometer time histories is given in:

Matlab script: Vibrationdata Signal Analysis Package

The function can be accessed via:

>> vibrationdata > Time History > Integrate or Differentiate >  Relative Displacement from Two Acceleration Time Histories

Typically, a highpass filter from 5 to 10 Hz is needed.

* * *

– Tom Irvine

HALT/HASS for Product Reliability

test-facility-halt-third

Highly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT) is a process for ruggedization of preproduction products.  It is also referred to as AST (Accelerated Stress Testing).

Highly Accelerated Stress Screening (HASS) is the production screen for products once they have been characterized in HALT.

HALT and HASS each use very high rate of change temperature chambers which are combined with multi-axis pneumatic vibration systems.

Slides: HALT/HASS for Product Reliability: HALT_HASS.pptx

See also: Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) for Product Reliability:  ESS.pptx

* * *

A function for synthesizing a rough approximation of a HALT/HASS acceleration time history (repetitive shock) is included in:

Matlab script: Vibrationdata Signal Analysis Package

The function can be accessed via:

>> vibrationdata > Miscellaneous > generate > HALT/HASS simulation

The Matlab script also has a function for thermal & vibration screen strengths

>> vibrationdata > Miscellaneous > ESS Screening Strengths

* * *

Reference:

United States Army, Belvoir Research, Development & Engineering Center, ESS Guide

* * *

The fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) can be used to characterize HALT/HASS severity.

See:

Fatigue Damage Spectrum – A New Tool to Accelerate Vibration Testing

Correlating HALT & HASS, RS/HALT Vibration and End-Use Environments

* * *

– Tom Irvine

Satisfy a Shock Response Spectrum with a Classical Pulse

A typical SRS specification has a ramp and plateau.  The best way to meet this specification type is with a complex oscillating pulse.

In some cases, a classical shock pulse may be used, but this will cause an over-test at certain frequencies.  Also, classical pulses tend to have positive and negative SRS curves which diverge at some frequencies.  The classical pulse would thus need to be applied in each direction of each axis.

The terminal sawtooth pulse, however, has positive and negative curves which have smaller divergence relative to other classical pulse types.

A function to calculate a classical pulse to meet an SRS has been added to the Vibrationdata GUI package.

Matlab script: Vibrationdata Signal Analysis Package

vibrationdata > Shock Response Spectrum >  Satisfy SRS with Classical Pulse

* * *

See also:  SRS Synthesis

– Tom Irvine

Webinar 41 – PSD Special Topics

1. Band-Splitting
2. Time-Level Equivalence
3. PSD Synthesis using Sine Series

PowerPoint Slides:  webinar_41_psd_topics.pptx

Audio/Visual File:

NESC Academy PSD Special Topics – Recommend viewing in Firefox with Sliverlight Plugin

* * *

Matlab script: Vibrationdata Signal Analysis Package

* * *

Here is a brief guideline paper from Martin-Marietta:  bandsplit.pdf

* * *

Thank you,
Tom Irvine