Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘Fatigue’ Category

sdof_base_image

Rainflow fatigue cycles can be easily calculated for a single-degree-of-freedom subjected to a sine or sine sweep base input.  The reason is that each pair of consecutive positive and negative response peaks forms a half-cycle.

The relative fatigue damage can then be calculated from the rainflow cycles.

Here are Matlab scripts for performing the rainflow and damage calculations.  rainflow_sine.zip

rainflow_sine.m is for the case where the natural frequency is known.

rainflow_sine_fds.m gives the fatigue damage spectrum for a family of natural frequencies.

The remaining scripts are supporting functions.

* * *

See also: 

Rainflow Cycle Counting

ramp_invariant_base.pdf

* * *

- Tom Irvine

Read Full Post »

Here is a paper showing how fatigue damage can be calculated from a stress response PSD for a plate excited by an acoustic pressure field:  acoustic_fatigue_plate.pdf

The calculation method is given at:
Fatigue Damage for a Stress Response PSD

* * *

The Matlab scripts for calculating the plate responses are included in the vibroacoustics section of the Vibrationdata GUI package, available at:   Vibrationdata Signal Analysis Package

* * *

See also:

Steady-State Response of a Rectangular Plate Simply-Supported on All Sides to a Uniform Pressure:  ss_plate_uniform_pressure.pdf

Steady-State Vibration Response of a Plate Fixed on All Sides Subjected to a Uniform Pressure: fixed_plate_uniform_pressure.pdf

- Tom Irvine

Read Full Post »

Here is a paper.

Estimating Fatigue Damage from Stress Power Spectral Density Functions: estimate_fatigue_psd.pdf

* * *

This following Matlab program calculates the cumulative rainflow fatigue damage for an input stress PSD using the following wideband methods:

1. Wirsching & Light
2. Ortiz & Chen
3. Lutes & Larsen, Single-Moment
4. Benasciutti & Tovo, alpha 0.75
5. Dirlik
6. Zhao & Baker

Reference:

Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice (Dover Books on Physics)

The stress PSD and the fatigue strength coefficient must have consistent stress units.

The input PSD must have two columns: freq(Hz) & stress(unit^2/Hz)

* * *

Main scripts:

stress_psd_fatigue.zip

Vibrationdata Signal Analysis Package

* * *

The following values are “For Reference Only.”

m = fatigue exponent
A = fatigue strength coefficient

Aluminum 6061-T6 with zero mean stress

m=9.25
A=9.7724e+17 (ksi^9.25)
A=5.5757e+25 (MPa^9.25)

Butt-welded Steel Joints

m=3.5
A=1.255e+11 (ksi^3.5)
A=1.080e+14 (MPa^3.5)

* * *

See also:

Rainflow Fatigue

Mrsnik, Janko Slavic, Boltezar, Frequency-domain methods for a vibration-fatigue-life estimation – Application to real data:  mrsnik_article_vib_fatigue.pdf

* * *

- Tom Irvine

Read Full Post »

Here is an empirical method for directing calculating a fatigue damage spectrum from a shock response spectrum: srs_fds.pdf

* * *

See also:

Using Random Vibration Testing to Cover Shock Requirements

- Tom Irvine

Read Full Post »

Aerospace and military components must be designed and tested to withstand shock and vibration environments.

Some of this testing occurs as qualification, whereby a sample component is tested to levels much higher than those which it would otherwise encounter in the field. This is done to verify the design.

Now consider a launch vehicle component which must withstand random vibration and pyrotechnic shock. The random vibration specification is in the form of a power spectral density (PSD). The shock requirement is a shock response spectrum (SRS).

Pyrotechnic-type SRS tests are often more difficult to control and thus more expensive than shaker table PSD tests. Furthermore, some lower and even mid-level SRS specifications may not have the true damage potential to justify shock testing.

The fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) can be used to further determine whether the PSD specification covers the SRS requirement.  If so, then shock testing can be omitted in some cases.

Here is a paper: random_cover_shock.pdf

* * *

See also:

Shock Severity Limits for Electronic Components

Rainflow Cycle Counting

Fatigue Damage Spectrum

Matlab Mex – fds_main script

SDOF Response to an acceleration PSD Base Input – VRS script with FDS option

Matlab script: Vibrationdata Signal Analysis Package  – SRS damped sine time history synthesis function

Direct Fatigue Damage Spectrum Calculation for a Shock Response Spectrum

* * *

- Tom Irvine

Read Full Post »

There is an occasional need to compare the effects of two different power spectral density (PSD) base input functions for a particular component. This would be the case if the component has already been tested to one PSD but now must be subjected to a new PSD specification.

A comparison can readily be performed using a Vibration Response Spectrum (VRS) if the PSDs have the same duration. This requires estimates of the bounds for both the amplification factor Q and the natural frequency.

The task is more complex if the PSDs have different durations. A Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) comparison can be performed as an extension of the VRS method. This also requires estimates of the fatigue exponent.

The method is demonstrated using an actual case history: psd_fatigue_comparison.pdf

* * *

Here is the source code for a C++ vibration response program which has a fatigue damage spectrum option: vrs.cpp

The calculation can also be performed using:

Matlab script: Vibrationdata Signal Analysis Package

* * *

See also:

Rainflow Fatigue Cycle Counting

Dirlik Rainflow Counting Method from Response PSD

SDOF Response to an acceleration PSD Base Input

* * *

- Tom Irvine

Read Full Post »

Aircraft Fatigue

Malaysia Airlines Flight 370

b777

The leading news story the last few days has been Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 which mysteriously disappeared on March 8, 2014, somewhere over the South China Sea or perhaps the Strait of Malacca. The aircraft was a Boeing 777-200ER.

The cause or causes of the disappearance and presumed crash are simply unknown at this time.

But fatigue failure is one possible cause. Note that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had previously issued the following warning regarding potential fatigue cracking in Boeing 777 aircraft.

Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes
Document Number: 2013-23456
Type: Proposed Rule
Date: 2013-09-26

Agency: Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation
We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 777 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of cracking in the fuselage skin underneath the satellite communication (SATCOM) antenna adapter. This proposed AD would require repetitive inspections of the visible fuselage skin and doubler if installed, for cracking, corrosion, and any indication of contact of a certain fastener to a bonding jumper, and repair if necessary. We are proposing this AD to detect and correct cracking and corrosion in the fuselage skin, which could lead to rapid decompression and loss of structural integrity of the airplane.

* * *

Pressurization Cycles

Aircraft fuselages undergo repetitive cycles of differential pressure with each flight. The difference between the cabin and the external ambient pressure is about 6 or 7 psi at an altitude of 36,000 feet.

Note that cabin pressure at high altitudes is maintained at about 75% of sea level pressure, which corresponds to the air pressure at 8000 ft. This is done by pumping air into the cabin. Note that there is some variation in these numbers depending on the aircraft model.

Pressurization cycles along with vibration, corrosion, and thermal cycling can cause fatigue cracks to form and propagate.

The following images show case histories of fatigue failures in aircraft.

* * *

de Havilland DH 106 Comet

boac1

boac2
The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the first production commercial jetliner, beginning service in 1952.

Several catastrophic failures occurred over the next two years.

Investigators eventually determined via testing that aircraft’s square windows had a “stress concentration factor” which generated levels of stress two or three times greater than across the rest of the fuselage. The window corners where thus prone to fatigue crack initiation, propagation, and fracture, particularly at the rivet holes.

As a result, the Comet was extensively redesigned with oval windows, structural reinforcement and other changes.

* * *

Aloha Airlines Flight 243

aloha

Aloha Airlines Flight 243 between Hilo and Honolulu in Hawaii suffered extensive damage after an explosive decompression in flight, on April 28, 1988. The aircraft was a Boeing 737-297. It was able to land safely at Kahului Airport on Maui. There was one fatality — a flight attendant was swept overboard.

Fatigue cracks occurred due to disbanding of cold bonded lap joints and hot bonded tear joints in the fuselage panels. This caused the rivets to be over-stressed. A large number of small cracks in the fuselage may have joined to form a large crack. Corrosion was also a related factor.

* * *

Southwest Airlines Flight 812

SW_Yuma

Southwest Airlines Flight 812 suffered rapid depressurization at 34,400 ft near Yuma, Arizona, leading to an emergency landing at Yuma International Airport, on April 1, 2011.

Inspection of the 5 feet long tear revealed evidence of pre-existing fatigue along a lap joint.

The National Transportation Safety Board has concluded that “the probable cause of this accident was the improper installation of the fuselage crown skin panel at the S-4L lap joint during the manufacturing process, which resulted in multiple site damage fatigue cracking and eventual failure of the lower skin panel.”

* * *

Qantas Flight 32

aus_rr

Qantas Flight 32 suffered an uncontained engine failure on 4 November 2010 and made an emergency landing at Singapore Changi Airport. The aircraft was an Airbus A380 with Rolls-Royce Trent 900 engines.

The Australian Transport Safety Bureau concluded that “fatigue cracking” in a stub pipe within the No. 2 engine resulted in oil leakage followed by an oil fire in the engine. The fire led to the release of the Intermediate Pressure Turbine (IPT) disc.

Shrapnel from the exploding engine punctured part of the wing and damaged the fuel system causing leaks and a fuel tank fire, disabled one hydraulic system and the anti-lock brakes and caused No.1 and No.4 engines to go into a ‘degraded’ mode, damaged landing flaps and the controls for the outer left No.1 engine.

* * *

Landing Gear

landing_gear_fatigue

Landing gears are designed to absorb the loads arising from taxiing, take-off, and landing. Hard landing shock is a particular concern. Vibration is another concern. Fatigue cracks can form in the struts and trunnion arms as a results of these loads. Again, corrosion can be a related factor.

* * *

See also:

FAA FR Doc No: 2013-23456

Aircraft Acoustics & Hard Landings

* * *

- Tom Irvine

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 222 other followers

%d bloggers like this: